Florida Harvests It’s First Legal Medical Marijuana Crop

7 Indest-2008-4By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law
On July 18, 2016, Florida harvested it’s first legal marijuana crop. The new crop is being stored in multiple vacuum-packed, 441-gram bags in a freezer on the outskirts of Tallahassee. The harvest is the result of months of careful growing, monitoring, coaxing, and finally cultivating, scores of plants in a hidden farm overseen by horticulturalists and protected by armed guards. It is unknown which security company, if any, is providing security or if it approaches the security of Fort Knox.

This is one of two production facilities operated by Surterra Therapeutics, the first of six companies to win state approval to grow and harvest medical marijuana for the seriously ill and dying.

Charlotte’s Web.

In 2014, Florida adopted laws to allow two types of medical marijuana: non-euphoric strains, such as “Charlotte’s Web,” that is thought to help control seizures and ease symptoms of certain other medical conditions; and full-strength marijuana to alleviate pain, nausea and other symptoms for patients considered terminally ill. Since Surterra won approval to harvest last month, Florida has allowed four other companies to do the same: Chestnut Hill Tree Farm in Alachua County, Hackney Nursery in Gadsden County, Modern Health Concepts in Miami-Dade County, and Knox Nursery in Orange County.

These grow farms are poised to expand considerably if the required 60 percent of voters in November cast “Yes” ballots for Amendment 2 to the Florida Constitution, which would legalize full-strength marijuana for an estimated 450,000 Floridians with debilitating illnesses.

To read one of my prior blogs on medical marijuana in Florida, click here.

Vote Yes for Amendment 2.

It is my opinion that the legalization of marijuana, especially for the treatment of sick children, is many decades overdue. Parents should not have to face the Hobson’s choice of breaking the law or obtaining relief for their sick child. For a herbal medication which has proven to have infinitely less adverse consequences than either alcohol or tobacco, this should be a “no brainer.”

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact the Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Source:

“Florida’s first medical marijuana crop cut up, stored.” Associated Press. (July 18, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida area. www.TheHealthLawfirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone; (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Florida medical marijuana use, legal counsel for medical marijuana, marijuana defense attorney, associations between cannabis use and physical health problems, Charlotte’s Webb, medical marijuana use for terminally ill patients, legal representation for medical marijuana, health lawyer, The Health Law Firm

The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved

New Study Reveals Only One Long Term Effect From Smoking Marijuana

3 Indest-2009-2By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

According to new research, long-term marijuana use may not be so bad for your health after all. A recent long-term study of nearly 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 has found that people who smoked marijuana for up to 20 years have more gum disease, but otherwise do not show worse physical health than non-smokers.

The researchers’ findings, published in the June issue of The Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry, found that among the 38-year-olds surveyed, 55.6% of people who had smoked marijuana regularly for 15 or 20 years had gum disease, while only 13.5% of the 38-year-olds who had never used marijuana and don’t smoke cigarettes had the same disease.

To draw their comparisons among the participants, researchers assessed physical health issues like lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. They also study-controlled for factors like socioeconomic status as well as self-reported brushing and flossing habits, according to Live Science. Click here to read the article in full.

The Findings.

In general, the findings showed that cannabis use over 20 years was unrelated to health problems in early midlife. Across the several domains of health factored in, clear evidence of an adverse association with cannabis use was apparent for only one domain, namely, periodontal health. While cannabis users had poor periodontal health, in some cases they actually showed better health outcomes than non-smokers such as lower body mass indexes, smaller waists and better high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, the good cholesterol. These results have led researchers to think that cannabis may have an impact on metabolism. Tobacco users in the study, were found to have gum disease as well as reduced lung function, systemic inflammation and indicators of poorer metabolic health.

“We can see the physical health effects of tobacco smoking in this study, but we don’t see similar effects for cannabis smoking,” Madeline Meier, an assistant professor of psychology at Arizona State University and the lead author on the study, told Duke Today.

Study’s Authors Warn: These Results Don’t Give a Green Light to Smoke As Much As You Want.

While this study revealed that tobacco smokers may be worse off tobacco, it doesn’t mean you should necessarily smoke marijuana as much as you want. “We need to recognize that heavy recreational cannabis use does have some adverse consequences, but overall damage to physical health is not apparent in this study,” Avshalom Caspi, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University and a coauthor on the study, said in a statement, according to Live Science.

To learn more about the effects and potential benefits of marijuana, click here to read one of my prior blogs.

More Medical Research Showing the Lack of Harm of Marijuana Use is Needed.

What this study shows is something that most of us who actually lived through the hippy movement of the Sixties already knew. Smoking marijuana is not harmful to you. Despite what marijuana opponents would like to be true, the evidence just does not support the harmfulness of marijuana. The problem is that with the lack of research studies because of federal restrictions, there is little published legitimate clinical research to actually prove the harmlessness of marijuana. This study goes far to show that fact. I would strongly encourage academic institutions to support such research and the federal government to stop its persecution of marijuana legalization and to support such research.

By comparison, those vices which are legal (alcohol and smoking be the two major ones), cause thousands of deaths each year and billions of dollars of loss to our economy, directly attributable to their use. Not so for marijuana! If we could take fifty percent of the alcohol abusers and convert them to using marijuana, instead, think of the savings on alcohol-related diseases, loss of income, domestic strife, the requirement for rehabilitation and treatment, and other such consequences. There are no known or reported cases of someone dying from a marijuana overdose. By comparison, how many thousands of U.S. citizens have died of alcohol overdoses?

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact the Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Berke, Jeremy. “A new study might have found one of the only long-term physical health risks linked to smoking marijuana.” Business Insider. (June 3, 2016). Web.

“Pot-Smokers Harm Gums; Other Physical Effects Slight.” Duke Today. (May 31, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Long-term effects of marijuana use, the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), recreational marijuana use, legal counsel for medical marijuana, marijuana defense attorney, associations between cannabis use and physical health problems, cannabis versus tobacco users, health lawyer, The Health Law Firm
The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved

House Passes $81.6 Billion Veterans Affairs Bill: Includes Allowing Medical Marijuana

7 Indest-2008-4By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

On May 19, 2016, a new bill was passed that would allow U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) doctors to prescribe medical marijuana to patients. As part of the $81.6 billion budget and policy bill for military construction and the department of Veterans Affairs, this new measure would allow VA doctors to prescribe medical marijuana to their patients in states where medical marijuana is currently legal.

Treatment For Veterans.

Rep. Earl Blumenauer, first brought about this new measure citing heightened rates of depression, suicide, and opioid use and abuse among veterans. Blumenauer urged the House to allow VA doctors to prescribe medical marijuana to their patients, despite a similar version of the amendment failed to pass on last year’s VA bill.

“It is essential that veterans be allowed to have access to this treatment if it is legal in their state,” Blumenauer said.

The Military Construction and Veterans Affairs bill, which the House voted 295-129 to pass, includes about $81.6 billion for U.S. Department of Defense construction projects, military housing, and VA administrative costs, benefits and health care. Overall, the bill adds $1.8 billion to the amount funded last year.

This is not the first time that medical marijuana has been brought up for the treatment of veterans. To read one of our previous blogs on treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with medical marijuana, click here.

While this appears to be great news, where are veterans going to be able to fill such prescriptions? Is the pharmacy in the VA Hospital or VA Clinic going to carry the medical marijuana? This has not been made clear. Being able to obtain a prescription when there is no place to fill it seems to just be a useless drill.

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact the Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Source:

Macagnone, Michael. “$81.6B VA Bill Passes House, Includes Medical Marijuana OK.” Law360. (May 19, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Medical marijuana, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), prescribing medical marijuana to patients, medical marijuana for treatment of veterans, legal representation for veterans, legal representation for medical marijuana, defense attorney, health care attorney, health law, The Health Law Firm
The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved

Ohio House Passes Historic Plan to Legalize Medical Marijuana

8 Indest-2008-5By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

On May 10, 2016, the Ohio House passed a historic plan to legalize medical marijuana in Ohio after a lengthy debate. After years of opposition to such a plan, it passed with a vote of 71-26. The bill’s GOP sponsor Rep. Stephen Huffman, an emergency room physician, said this new law is what is best for patients

Why Did it Pass Now?

According to a poll conducted by Quinnipiac University, residents of Ohio are much more interested in legalizing medical marijuana than the recreational drug. To read more on the poll, click here .

The bill’s GOP sponsor Dr. Stephen Huffman, said that the law which was passed is what’s best for patients in Ohio since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has failed to take similar action. “I am absolutely convinced that there is therapeutic value in medical marijuana,” said Dr. Huffman, after reciting a portion of the Hippocratic Oath. “There is absolutely no doubt in my mind.”

Others believe that the legalization of medical marijuana is needed as an alternative to opiates for patients with chronic pain.

Ohio Lawmakers Are Not Ready For All Forms of Medical Marijuana.

Despite the passing of this bill, Ohio’s legislature does not appear to be ready to legalize all forms of medical marijuana, there are restrictions. The strict bill which was passed, would not allow patients to grow marijuana at home or smoke it. Additionally an employers could fire an employee for having marijuana in his or her system, even if it is recommended by a physician.

The proposal is now headed to the Ohio Senate, where minor changes are expected. The bill could be on Gov. John Kasich’s desk by the end of the month. To read one of my prior blogs on the legalization of medical marijuana, click here .

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact The Health Law Firm please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Source:

Balmert, Jessie. “House passes medical marijuana plan in historic vote.” Cincinnati Enquirer. (May 11, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Legalization of medical marijuana, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), medical marijuana as an alternative for opiates, treating chronic pain, legal representation for medical marijuana, medical marijuana defense attorney, medical marijuana lawyer, health law, The Health Law Firm

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved.

Canada to Legalize Recreational Marijuana in 2017: Spring Breakers to Go North Next Year

6 Indest-2008-3By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law
On April 20, 2016, Canada’s Health Minister announced that the Canadian government will introduce a new law in the Spring of 2017 to legalize recreational marijuana and regulate sales. This law fulfills Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s election pledge and follows the footsteps of several U.S. states that are attempting to decriminalize and permit easy access to the drug.

The Details.

Canada’s Health Minister Jane Philpott, who recently spoke at a special session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, said the Canadian law will ensure marijuana is kept away from children and keep criminals from profiting from its sales. “We will work with law enforcement partners to encourage appropriate and proportionate criminal justice measures,” she said. “We know it is impossible to arrest our way out of them problem.”

Since many major Canadian cities are located within 100 miles of the U.S. border, Canada’s legalization could spur border states to enact their own legislation to prevent the exodus of tourism dollars.

Medical and Recreational Marijuana: Separate Issues.

The use of medical marijuana is a separate issue from recreational marijuana in Canada and is already legal. Canada’s medical marijuana growers say the rise in illegal marijuana dispensaries is costing them valuable customers and money.

Toronto’s former chief of police Bill Blair, has emphasized current laws banning marijuana remain in effect, but illegal dispensaries have multiplied since Justin Trudeau, who became prime minister after his Liberal Party came into power. To read more on his pledge to legalize and regulate marijuana, click here.

The Canadian government has not yet provided details on the production and distribution plans.

To read one of my prior blogs on the use of recreational marijuana, click here.

Spring Breakers To Go North?

In light of Canada’s marihoochee initiative, and the misplaced efforts of Florida vacation cities to ban alcohol, it may very well be that many spring breakers will decide to go north, instead of south next year. A recent article on Panama City Beach advised that its businesses have suffered their worst year in recent history, driven primarily by reduced revenues during spring break. This was allegedly caused by a strong crackdown on public alcohol consumption by anyone. Gee, who would have ever guessed that this might negatively affect tourism dollars and business income in a resort beach community? Click here to read the article in full.

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.
To contact The Health Law Firm please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:
Kovac, Adam. “Canada aims for pot legalization in 2017.” USA Today. (April 26, 2016). Web.

Freeman, Alan. “Canada to introduce legislation in 2017 to legalize the sale of maijuana.” The Washington Post. (April 20, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Marijuana legislation, decriminalization of marijuana, recreational marijuana legislation in Canada, regulating sales of marijuana, marijuana growers, marijuana distributors, Canada’s 2017 legislation to legalize marijuana, health care attorney, defense lawyer, health law defense attorney, medical marijuana, Florida medical cannabis, medical marijuana defense attorney, health law, The Health Law Firm

The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved

Could Marijuana Be a Successful Treatment For Opioid Addiction? Lawmakers Are Considering This Alternative Treatment

7 Indest-2008-4By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

Recently, a growing number of patients and doctors have claimed that medical marijuana may help treat addiction to painkillers and heroin. These claims have intrigued lawmakers and advocates who are pushing for marijuana as a treatment for the abuse of opioids and narcotics like heroin, as well as an alternative to painkillers.

One Problem: Very Little Supporting Research.

As there has been a growing problem with addiction to painkillers and heroin, this seems like a promising treatment. There is one problem however.  There is very little research showing that marijuana works effectively as a treatment for the addiction.

According to advocates, a growing amount of scientific literature supports the idea and a study in the Journal of Pain published in 2016, found that chronic pain sufferers significantly reduced their opioid use when taking medical marijuana.

The supporting research also falls short of concluding marijuana actually helps wean people off painkillers and illegal narcotics like heroin. Many health care professionals say it’s not enough for them to confidently prescribe marijuana as a treatment for addiction.

Is Marijuana a Safe Alternative?

Even though some patients and doctors have claimed the treatment is successful, not everyone is convinced. Cannabis could have limited benefits as a treatment alternative, said Harvard Medical School’s Dr. Kevin Hill, authored the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) study that found benefits in using medical marijuana to treat chronic pain. But he also urged caution.

“If you are thinking about using cannabis as opposed to using opioids for chronic pain, then I do think the evidence does support it,” he said. “However, I think one place where sometimes cannabis advocates go too far is when they talk about using cannabis to treat opioid addiction.”

Additionally, some substance abuse experts argue that there are already approved medications to treat addiction. They also claim that it would be wrong to portray marijuana as completely safe because it can also be addictive.

To read one of my prior blogs on medical marijuana and the list of recommended uses, click here.

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact The Health Law Firm please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Casey, Michael. “Could Marijuana Help Treat Painkiller and Heroin Addiction?” Associated Press. (April 26,2016). Web.

“Could Marijuana Help Treat Painkiller and Heroin Addiction?” CBS News. (April 26, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Marijuana treatment for opioid addiction, alternative addiction treatment, alternative for painkillers, Florida medical marijuana, medical marijuana legislation, medical marijuana laws, medical cannabis, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Journal of Pain, medical marijuana stores, medical marijuana license, medical marijuana legalization, medical marijuana lawyer, defense attorney, health lawyer, The Health Law Firm

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved.

Orlando One Step Closer to Decriminalizing Marijuana as Commissioners Approve New Ordinance

4 Indest-2009-3By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law
On April 18, 2016, Orlando moved a one step closer to effectively decriminalizing small amounts of marijuana. The City Council narrowly backed a measure that would allow officers to issue tickets to some people caught with the drug.

Orlando commissioners voted 4-3 to approve the ordinance, which would make possession of 20 grams (about two-thirds of an ounce) or less a violation of city code carrying a $50 fine for first-time offenders.

Marijuana Still Remains a State Crime.

Even if it passes, marijuana possession will remain a state crime in Florida. Orlando police Chief John Mina said officers may still make arrests even for small amounts in the future, depending on the circumstances including the offender’s record. Officers already have the option to confiscate small amounts of marijuana without making an arrest.

“This cannot [and] will not replace the criminal state statute … our officers will have the discretion to arrest in certain situations,” Mina said. “This just gives them another option.”

The council plans to take a final vote on the measure on May 9. If approved then, it would take effect immediately.

To read one of my prior blogs on marijuana legislation in Florida, click here.

Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys for Medical Marijuana Concerns.

The Health Law Firm attorneys can assist health care providers and facilities, such as doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies, wanting to participate in the medical marijuana industry. We can properly draft and complete the applications for registration, permitting and/or licensing, while complying with Florida law. We can also represent doctors, pharmacies and pharmacists facing proceedings brought by state regulators or agencies.

To contact The Health Law Firm please call (407) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Source:

Weiner, Jeff. “Orlando narrowly approves marijuana ordinance on first vote.” Orlando Sentinel. (April 18, 2016). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620.

KeyWords: Florida marijuana legislation, decriminalization of marijuana in Florida, health care attorney, defense lawyer, health law defense attorney, medical marijuna, Florida medical cannabis, medical marijuana defense attorney, health law, The Health Law Firm

The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of George F. Indest III, P.A. – The Health Law Firm, a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2016 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved.